Write a comment

Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano has entered a new destructive period of eruptions, which has happened several times since it resumed producing lava in 1983. Here’s some context behind one of the world’s most active volcanoes:

Kilauea is mass building

Kilauea is currently in the second phase of growth, the “shield building” stage, where it is the most active and the most voluminous.

1. Pre-shield

Small eruptions below sea level.

2. Shield building

Volcanic mass grows above sea.

3. Post-shield

Magma cap flows, covers volcano.

 

In this stage, occurrences of lava flows and eruptions alternate. This can continue up to 2 million years.

 

Lava flows in past 1,000 years. Kilauea is covered with 90% young flows.

Beneath Kilauea

Lava eruptions have occurred at the volcano’s summit since 2008 and since 1983 on its eastern shoulder at a crater called Pu'u O'o, which collapsed on April 30, and sent lava searching for a new path downhill.

 

The cycle of volcanic eruptions and hazards

Scientists are concerned that if the lava column drops to the level of groundwater beneath Kilauea summit, it will cause more eruptions.

 

1. Magma column drops to water level.

Normally, when the lava lake level is high, temperatures are so hot that the groundwater in surrounding rocks is kept away from the magma.

2. Groundwater interacts with hot rock.

When lava meets the water, steam is created. Rocks can fall from walls as the lava lake lowers, and form a dam holding back steam.

3. Steam pressure builds, then explodes.

Rocks of up to 12 tons can shoot out of the volcano to a distance of half a mile. Marble-size rocks can fall for several miles, while falling ash is a concern 10 to 20 miles downwind.

Hawaii Island’s five volcanoes

Hawaii Island is made up of five volcanoes, four of which are considered active. Kohala is the oldest volcano on the island and inactive.

 

Sources: USGS, Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service

 

 

Say something here...
You are a guest ( Sign Up ? )
or post as a guest
Loading comment... The comment will be refreshed after 00:00.

Be the first to comment.

 

 

 

Latest

5 Comments

Hurricane Leaves Major "Hole" In US National Defenses!

September 15, 2018
Write a comment

47.3 Inches of Rain in 48 Hours - and it's still raining!

September 15, 2018
9 Comments

COVERT INTEL: Solar Observatory Closure in New Mexico

September 15, 2018
2 Comments

Mueller Refers Former Obama White House Counsel for Criminal Prosecution!

September 15, 2018
12 Comments

COVERT INTEL: Keep an eye on Europe This Weekend; Germany, Austria, Lichtenstein in particular

September 14, 2018
16 Comments

First Deaths from Hurricane as Hundreds More Cry for Help in North Carolina

September 14, 2018
12 Comments

RADIATION SPIKE AT FORMER NUKE PLANT SITE IN CALIFORNIA

September 14, 2018
15 Comments

70 -100 EXPLOSIONS AND FIRES IN ANDOVER AND LAWRENCE, MASS. - GAS MAIN MALFUNCTION CAUSING HOMES TO EXPLODE

September 13, 2018
2 Comments

*** TRAPPED ***

September 13, 2018
8 Comments

Homes Being SMASHED By 20' Waves; Collapsing - Streets Inundated with water & Sand; Electric OUTAGES Spreading

September 13, 2018
6 Comments

Hang On North & South Carolina, America is Coming to Help!

September 13, 2018
1 Comment

TORNADO WATCH ISSUED - North Carolina Coastal Waters- Hurricane Florence

September 13, 2018
7 Comments

Outermost Bands of Hurricane Clouds Reach North Carolina; Whitecaps Visible in Ocean

September 12, 2018
8 Comments

Historic First: SPACE STATION Issues Hurricane Warning to Evacuate | NHC Measures 83 Foot WAVES

September 12, 2018
5 Comments

8 Minutes Ago: Hurricane Hunter Aircraft Measures Winds of 157.6 MPH in Florence!

September 11, 2018